Important Info

Important notice

The material in this report is for educational and informative purposes, not intended for the diagnosis or treatment of disease. Recommendations in this report are provided by dietitians and nutritionists.

Recommendation Dietary Allowances (RDA) Note: US RDA is provided as a reference for baseline nutrient intake, and is based on the average daily intake required to meet the nutrient requirements of healthy individuals.

Introduction

DNA test screens for multiple genetic variations or Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in your DNA. Genetic variations in key enzymes and proteins interfere with absorption, metabolism, transport, conversion and other pathways that determine vitamin and minerals levels. This genetic test enables you to design your optimal eating plan, and highlight which nutrients you may need more of. We help you understand the science of your genes and use this information to intervene at an early stage to avoid possible nutrient imbalances.

Frequently Asked Questions

The genome is genetic content, or hereditary information, composed of DNA, in humans and other organisms. DNA is built with four bases – Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Guanine (G), and Cytosine (C). Although the genome of all humans is almost the same, a minor difference exists among individuals. This difference, called ‘genetic variation’, is responsible for various unique phenotypes, (appearance, e.g, color of skin/eyes, skin elasticity, skin sensitivity, etc.) and the difference in health status among individuals. In most cases, this difference or variation is passed on to the next generation (inheritance), which affects predisposition to certain health conditions and illnesses in offspring.

Sequence 1: ATGGTAACCCTT
Sequence 2: ATGGTAGCCCTT

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism or SNP (pronounced as ‘snip’) is a type of genetic variation, where in a single letter difference occurs in the DNA sequence of an individual when compared to others.

In the above-given example, the first sequence differs from the second sequence only by a single letter (A/G). This single letter change in the sequence is associated with or affects various phenotypic traits, genetic susceptibility to health conditions, response to drugs, vitamins, etc.

Shows the percentage of people in the general population who have lower predisposition likelihood than you for the specific trait.

This is the assessment whether your trait predisposition is within the normal range of the population, or whether you have slightly elevated or elevated likelihood of having a particular predisposition.

Wellness Genomics is the science of identifying links between genetic variations present in your DNA with specific wellness traits. Genetic variations associated with decreased levels of an essential vitamin or mineral indicate risk for potential micronutrient deficiency. An individual with higher genetic-based risk for deficiency in vitamin D, for example, is encouraged to consume foods rich in vitamin D, monitor vitamin D level, and talk to nutritionist or healthcare provider about vitamin D supplementation. While everyone needs to make sure to follow general recommendations for all essential minerals and vitamins, it is more important to monitor those for which you have elevated genetics-based risks.

Your reports are generated by our Computational Genomics platform, which provides the most rigorous science currently available to analyse genetics-based wellness. It is based on over a decade of highly curated global scientific research. When reading your report, do note that most wellness traits are influenced by three factors: your genetics, your nurture environment (ages 0-7), and your current lifestyle choices. As such, genetics is not the only determinant for the actual presence of a trait. Genetic predispositions can only tell you the statistical likelihood that you are predisposed to a particular trait such as vitamin deficiency or skin youthfulness.

Once we receive your saliva sample, it is processed by our scientists in our in-house laboratory, to extract your DNA. We use Illumina DNA microarray technology, developed in collaboration with several leading research institutions, to analyse your samples. This chip contains highly-informative, genome- wide markers found across diverse world populations, and allows us to quickly and easily sample your DNA for unique genetic dispositions to various wellness traits. Your sample is then scanned on the Illumina iScan microarray, a robust platform that provides reproducible and high-quality genotype data.

Samples run within our lab have demonstrated a 99.5% level of concordance compared with other diagnostic accredited facilities. This high level of concordance gives us the confidence that we are processing your samples to the stringent and exacting quality standards required of a medical diagnostic laboratory.

We continually strive to keep up with the latest developments in the field of Wellness Genomics, to provide you with the most up-to-date information. As a pioneer of Wellness Genomics in Asia, we continue to optimize for the Asian populations and subpopulations in the countries we serve.

The genes and SNPs are selected based on two criteria: 1) significance of the statistical relationship strength between the genetic variations and the trait within the scientific literature; 2) applicability to the Asian population. Many of the SNPs we have chosen are more likely to occur in and impact Asian populations. Where we have been able to find studies that deal with Asian populations, we have given a higher weight to those in our knowledge base to ensure relevance.

The algorithm behind the scores is complex and proprietary, but the basic logic is as follows. Everyone has potentially two types of genetic variations. Those that contribute to the strength of a trait, and those that decrease the strength of a trait. For example, one may have genetic variations that increase the likelihood of predisposition to obesity, while other variations decrease that likelihood. In order to arrive at our indicative score, we look at each genetic variation, determine its influence on the trait, weigh the importance given its potential role in critical metabolic pathways and enzymatic reactions, explore whether it is co-occurring with other variations that we expect to see if there is a higher risk. We then consider population data, and rank the person based on their likelihood of predisposition compared to that of the rest of the population. The population percentile score shows the percentage of people who have less likelihood than you to be genetically predisposed to a trait.

The thresholds are based on the inflection points within population distributions for each trait, which differs from trait to trait. Wherever available, the data is compared to the phenotype data from the tested population, as well as WHO public health data on some of the nutrient deficiency prevalence statistics.

Each trait has three influential factors, nature (genetics), nurture (upbringing) and current lifestyle (choice/behaviour). If you are predisposed to exercise aversion it means many people with the same genetic composition as yours found it more difficult to motivate themselves to exercise. Your family upbringing and personal choices can overcome your genetics. In fact, that is the main reason we offer you this information, since you can use it to overcome your potential predispositions through a change in lifestyle. For example, if you are exercising despite being predisposed to high exercise aversion, you should be prouder of your achievement compared to someone that does not have a predisposition to exercise aversion.