Health Risks

Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible vision loss among older adults. The disease results in damage to the central part of the retina (the macula), which affects the vision needed for reading, driving, or even recognizing faces.

DEMO Result

Based on your genetics, your personal predicted risk is


Your risk for Age-Related Macular Degeneration also depends on other factors, including lifestyle and genetic variants not covered by this test.

The population risk for Age-Related Macular Degeneration is 6.9

How To Use This Test

This test SHOULD NOT be used to diagnose Age-Related Macular Degeneration or any other health conditions.

Please talk to a healthcare professional if you have a family history, if you think you might have this condition or if you have any concerns about your results.

Intended Uses

This predicted personal genetic risk merely considers the genetic/genotype effect towards the disease in an individual without taking into account the environmental factors such as lifestyles, diet and their environment

This result is based on the SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) that are associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

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The results of this test do not diagnose Age-Related Macular Degeneration or related conditions. This should not be used as a diagnostic tool.

This result does not include all possible variants or genes associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

This result is limited to existing scientific research.

Lifestyle & Other Risk Factors Can Influence The Risk of Developing Age-related macular degeneration

Genetics are NOT the only risk factor for Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

Age-Related Macular Degeneration is believed to be caused by a combination of environmental, genetic and lifestyle factors. Now that you have learnt about your genetic risk, you can determine how aggressively you need to make lifestyle changes to reduce your risk.

The earlier in your life that you commit to living a healthy lifestyle, the more you can reduce your risk for or delay the development of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.


Smoking is associated with higher risk of developing AMD. If you smoke, quitting is one of the easiest ways to reduce your risk.

Family history

Parents, siblings, and children of an individual with AMD have a higher chance of developing AMD themselves.


Eating a healthy diet has been associated with a reduced risk of developing AMD. A healthy dietthat benefits the eyes emphasizes the consumption of dark green leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, nuts, and whole grains. Consuming healthy fats — found in fish, nuts, and olive oil — and minimizing saturated and trans fats are also important.


The risk of developing AMD increases greatly as a person ages. This condition is rarely diagnosed in people under the age of 50. Over the age of 80, 2-14% of people have AMD, depending on ethnicity.


People of European descent are more likely to develop AMD than people of African, Hispanic, and Asian descent.

Suggested Lifestyle Changes

Lifestyle Recommendations


Avoid smoking as cigarette smoking increases the risk of AMD


Maintain a healthy weight and BMI (body mass index) and do more physical activities to reduce the risk of AMD progression

Dietary Recommendations


Higher dietary intakes of carotenoids such as lutein or zeaxanthin which are found in abundant in dark green and leafy vegetables have potential effect in reducing risk of AMD.


Reducing high total fat intake as it was found to be associated with almost a three-fold higher risk of progression of AMD.


Increase consumption of omega-3 fats, which are found in high levels in fish and some nuts to reduce the risk of progression to advanced AMD.

What Is Age-Related Macular Degeneration
and How Can It Affect You

What is Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) arises when macula which is a spot near the center of the retina in the eyes becomes damaged. Macula is important for central vision which allows us to see object straight ahead. The center field view (central vision) will be disrupted and can appear blurry, distorted or even dark in those with AMD. People with AMD also lose their ability to see fine details regardless if the object is near or far.

AMD is a disease of the retina which accounts for 8.7% of blindness worldwide and is the leading cause of visual impairment in developed countries particularly in people older than 60 years. Its prevalence is likely to increase as a consequence of exponential population ageing.

How Does Age Related Macular Degeneration Affect You?

AMD causes damage to the macula, the part of the eye needed for sharp, central vision, which lets us see objects that are straight ahead. This is necessary for recognising faces, reading books or using mobile phone screens, watching television, sewing, preparing food, driving, safely navigating stairs and performing other daily tasks we take for granted.

Symptoms Of Age Related Macular Degeneration

Symptoms include:

If you have a family history of this condition or think you have the symptoms, consult with a healthcare professional.

Understanding Your Results

How Is Your Genetic Risk Calculated?

Your genetic risk assessment is


Genes tested

This result is calculated based on the following SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) that are associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

GenesYour GenotypeWhat It Means
VEGFACTIncreased risk for late-stage AMD


This report does not diagnose any health conditions or provide medical advice. This should not be used as a diagnostic tool.

This result is limited to existing scientific research.

Consult with a healthcare professional before making any major lifestyle changes or if you have any other concerns about your results.