Health Risks

Coronary Artery Disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common heart disease.

DEMO Result

Based on your genetics, your personal predicted risk is

13.38


Your risk for Coronary Artery Disease also depends on other factors, including lifestyle and genetic variants not covered by this test.

The population risk for Coronary Artery Disease is 24.5

How To Use This Test


This test SHOULD NOT be used to diagnose Coronary Artery Disease or any other health conditions.


Please talk to a healthcare professional if you have a family history, if you think you might have this condition or if you have any concerns about your results.

Intended Uses

This predicted personal genetic risk merely considers the genetic/genotype effect towards the disease in an individual without taking into account the environmental factors such as lifestyles, diet and their environment

This result is based on the SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) that are associated with Coronary Artery Disease.

Read more


Limitations

The results of this test do not diagnose Coronary Artery Disease or related conditions. This should not be used as a diagnostic tool.

This result does not include all possible variants or genes associated with Coronary Artery Disease.

This result is limited to existing scientific research.

Lifestyle & Other Risk Factors Can Influence The Risk of Developing Coronary artery disease

Genetics are NOT the only risk factor for Coronary Artery Disease.

Coronary Artery Disease is believed to be caused by a combination of environmental, genetic and lifestyle factors. Now that you have learnt about your genetic risk, you can determine how aggressively you need to make lifestyle changes to reduce your risk.

The earlier in your life that you commit to living a healthy lifestyle, the more you can reduce your risk for or delay the development of Coronary Artery Disease.

Family
Family History

Having a family history of coronary artery diseases increases the risk of developing coronary artery disease.

Blood pressure
Cholesterol Levels

Having high LDL (bad) cholesterol and low HDL (good) cholesterol increases the risk of developing coronary artery disease.

Blood pressure
Blood Pressure

Having high blood pressure increases the risk of developing coronary artery disease.

Diabetes
Diabetes

Having diabetes increases the risk of developing coronary artery disease.

Age
Age

Being post-menopausal for women and being older than 45 for men increases the risk of developing coronary artery disease.

Suggested Lifestyle Changes

Lifestyle Recommendations

1

Stop smoking to reduce the risk of coronary artery disease

2

Aim to do more physical activities to reduce the risk of coronary artery disease

3

Participate in aerobic (that raises heart rate) and resistance training to increase strength of the muscle. Both types of exercises are beneficial to the heart, and can help in preventing coronary artery diseases.

Dietary Recommendations

1

A diet low in fat (<10% of total amount of calories), low in salt, low in cholesterol (<300 mg/day), low in calories, and high in fiber (>20 g/day) can help to reduce the risk of coronary artery disease.

2

Limit the intake of butter, lard (when cooking), baked goods and sugary beverages.

3

Consume low fat milk and dairy products, lean meat, aim to use salt-free seasoning.

4

Reduce having canned food which have high amount of salt.

5

Consume more nuts such as almonds, hazelnuts, walnuts, pistachios, pine nuts, cashews, pecans, macadamias, and Brazil nuts as they are beneficial in preventing cardiovascular heart diseases.

6

Soybeans are a good source of fiber, iron, calcium, zinc, and B vitamins, and the consumption of soy product is also associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease.

7

Diets which are high in raw vegetables and fruits can also help to reduce coronary artery disease risk. If possible limit or avoid fried and breaded vegetables, canned vegetables which are in high in sodium, frozen/canned fruits with added sugar.

What Is Coronary Artery Disease
and How Can It Affect You

What is Coronary Artery Disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common heart disease.

CAD develops when the coronary arteries (major blood vessel that supplies blood, oxygen and nutrients to the heart) thickened and narrowed. This is due to plaque (cholesterol-containing deposits) build-up in the inner walls of the arteries. This narrows your coronary arteries, decreasing blood flow to your heart. When the heart muscle doesn’t get enough blood and oxygen, it can lead to chest pain and heart attack. A complete blockage can cause a heart attack.

Genetic and environmental factors, such as diet, smoking, and physical inactivity play a role in the development of CAD.

Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the developed world, responsible for about 1 in every 5 deaths. It is also the leading cause of mortality in Malaysia, which accounted for 13.2% death in 2016.

How Does Coronary Artery Disease Affect Your Body?

The thickening artery wall (due to plagues) gradually causes the narrowing of the artery, which can eventually result in a restriction of blood flow. Stable plaques do not rupture but limit blood flow to supply oxygen to tissues, and usually lead to chest pain. Unstable plaques are prone to erosion or rupture, and may cause the formation of blood clots in the artery.

When blood clots happen, it can obstruct blood flow, increasing the likelihood of complete blockage of the artery. Plaque rupture with temporary or incomplete blockage of artery results in reduced blood flow to the heart, while plaque rupture with complete blockage of artery and tissue death causes heart attack (myocardial infarction).

What Are The Symptoms Of Coronary Artery Disease?

Chest pain
Pressure and tightening in the chest which may radiate to the jaw, shoulder, back, or arm and which typically lasts several minutes . This is referred to as angina which normally triggered by physical and emotional stress.

Shortness of breath
When the heart can’t pump enough blood to meet your body's needs, you can develop shortness of breath or extreme fatigue with exertion.

3. Heart attack
A fully blocked coronary artery will cause a heart attack. The usual signs and symptoms of a heart attack include a strong pressure in your chest and pain in your shoulder or arm, in some cases shortness of breath and sweating.

If you have a family history of this condition or think you have the symptoms, consult with a healthcare professional.

Understanding Your Results

How Is Your Genetic Risk Calculated?

Your genetic risk assessment is

13.38

Genes tested

This result is calculated based on the following SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) that are associated with Coronary Artery Disease.

GenesYour GenotypeWhat It Means
IRS1CCIncreased risk of coronary artery disease
ANRILCCIncreased risk of coronary artery disease
FMN2TTIncreased risk of coronary artery disease
CDH13_intron4GGIncreased risk of coronary artery disease
ABOTTTypical
LPATTTypical
SORT1AAIncreased risk of CAD
LDLR_intron30GGIncreased risk of coronary artery disease

Limitations

This report does not diagnose any health conditions or provide medical advice. This should not be used as a diagnostic tool.

This result is limited to existing scientific research.

Consult with a healthcare professional before making any major lifestyle changes or if you have any other concerns about your results.