Health Risks

Familial Hypercholesterolaemia

FH is a defect that makes the body unable to remove low density lipoprotein (LDL, or bad) cholesterol from the blood. This results in a high level of LDL in the blood.

DEMO Result

Based on your genetics, your personal predicted risk is

normal


Your risk for Familial Hypercholesterolaemia also depends on other factors, including lifestyle and genetic variants not covered by this test.

How To Use This Test


This test SHOULD NOT be used to diagnose Familial Hypercholesterolaemia or any other health conditions.


Please talk to a healthcare professional if you have a family history, if you think you might have this condition or if you have any concerns about your results.

Intended Uses

This predicted personal genetic risk merely considers the genetic/genotype effect towards the disease in an individual without taking into account the environmental factors such as lifestyles, diet and their environment

This result is based on the SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) that are associated with Familial Hypercholesterolaemia.

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Limitations

The results of this test do not diagnose Familial Hypercholesterolaemia or related conditions. This should not be used as a diagnostic tool.

This result does not include all possible variants or genes associated with Familial Hypercholesterolaemia.

This result is limited to existing scientific research.

Lifestyle & Other Risk Factors Can Influence The Risk of Developing Familial hypercholesterolaemia

Genetics are NOT the only risk factor for Familial Hypercholesterolaemia.

Familial Hypercholesterolaemia is believed to be caused by a combination of environmental, genetic and lifestyle factors. Now that you have learnt about your genetic risk, you can determine how aggressively you need to make lifestyle changes to reduce your risk.

The earlier in your life that you commit to living a healthy lifestyle, the more you can reduce your risk for or delay the development of Familial Hypercholesterolaemia.

Family
Family History

Parents, siblings, and children of an individual with early heart disease (younger than 55 years in men and younger than 65 years in women) have a higher chance of developing heart disease themselves.

Blood pressure
High Blood Pressure

Chronic high blood pressure increases the risk for heart disease. High blood pressure puts excess strain and increased workload on the heart and blood vessels, which can damage them over time.

Age
Age

In general, the risk for heart disease increases as a person gets older. With age, blood vessels become less flexible, which can impede blood flow to the heart. Also, deposits called plaques can build up over time along blood vessels and restrict blood flow to the heart.

Smoking
Smoking

Smoking increases the risk for heart disease. Exposure to secondhand smoke, including smoke from a burning cigarette and smoke exhaled by smokers, also increases the risk for heart disease.

Lifestyle
Lifestyle

In general, eating a healthy diet, maintaining a healthy weight, engaging in physical activity, and avoiding smoking can reduce the risk for heart disease.

Suggested Lifestyle Changes

Lifestyle Recommendations

1

Aim to have more than 150 minutes of moderate-intensity (brisk walking, doing housework) physical activity or 75 minutes of vigorous (running, fast swimming, jogging, aerobics) activity each week. This will help in increasing HDL level and lowering LDL level.

2

Stop smoking

3

Maintain a healthy weight

Dietary Recommendations

1

Increase intake of vegetables, fruit, non-fat dairy, beans, tree nuts, fish and lean meats should be encouraged

2

Cut down consumption of saturated fat (fatty beef, lamb, cheese, butter) to less than 7% of calories. Instead take polyunsaturated fats, protein or carbohydrates.

3

Avoid trans fats (processed food)

4

Moderate consumption of alcohol

5

Consider adding plant stanols which are naturally occurring plant chemicals that block cholesterol absorption in the the digestive system, therefore lowering the levels of LDL (bad) cholesterol in the blood. Plant stanols can be found in wheat germ, wheat bran, peanuts, vegetable oils (olive oil), almonds and Brussels sprouts. Certain dairy products have added plant stanols in it which include fortified milk, spreads, yoghurts and yoghurt drinks

What Is Familial Hypercholesterolaemia
and How Can It Affect You

What is Familial Hypercholesterolaemia

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a defect that is passed down through families. It causes raised levels of “bad” cholesterol called LDL (low density lipoprotein). High levels of LDL in the body can contribute to heart related complications.

Since it is an inherited condition (from birth), it can cause heart attack at early stages. Normally, cholesterol levels tend to increase with age. However, people with FH have high levels of LDL even from a very young age, and it continues to go higher as they age.

FH causes a defect where the body is unable to remove the LDL from the bloodstream efficiently. When there is too much cholesterol in the blood, it can cause buildup of plaque (deposits) in the artery (blood vessels connecting to the heart). These plaques can harden over time and cause the blood vessels to become narrow, limiting the supply of oxygen-rich blood to other organs in the body. This can lead to heart attack.

How Can Familial Hypercholesterolemia Affect You?

Familial Hypercholesterolemia causes:

Do You Have Symptoms Of High Cholesterol Levels?

Symptoms of familial hypercholesterolemia are:

If you have a family history of this condition or think you have the symptoms, consult with a healthcare professional.

Understanding Your Results

How Is Your Genetic Risk Calculated?

Your genetic risk assessment is

normal

Genes tested

This result is calculated based on the following SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) that are associated with Familial Hypercholesterolaemia.

GenesYour GenotypeWhat It Means
LDLR.1CCTypical
APOB_exon26GGTypical
LDLR.2GGTypical
LDLR_exon9GGTypical
LDLR.3CCTypical
LDLR.4TTTypical
LDLR_exon12GGTypical
LDLR_exon2CCTypical

Limitations

This report does not diagnose any health conditions or provide medical advice. This should not be used as a diagnostic tool.

This result is limited to existing scientific research.

Consult with a healthcare professional before making any major lifestyle changes or if you have any other concerns about your results.