Health Risks

Type 2 Diabetes

In type 2 diabetes, sugar builds up in the blood, which over time can lead to complications like heart disease and stroke. Excess weight and physical inactivity are important factors, but genetics also play a role.

DEMO Result

Based on your genetics, your personal predicted risk is

13.85


Your risk for Type 2 Diabetes also depends on other factors, including lifestyle and genetic variants not covered by this test.

The population risk for Type 2 Diabetes is 14.6

How To Use This Test


This test SHOULD NOT be used to diagnose Type 2 Diabetes or any other health conditions.


Please talk to a healthcare professional if you have a family history, if you think you might have this condition or if you have any concerns about your results.

Intended Uses

This predicted personal genetic risk merely considers the genetic/genotype effect towards the disease in an individual without taking into account the environmental factors such as lifestyles, diet and their environment

This result is based on the SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) that are associated with Type 2 Diabetes.

Read more


Limitations

The results of this test do not diagnose Type 2 Diabetes or related conditions. This should not be used as a diagnostic tool.

This result does not include all possible variants or genes associated with Type 2 Diabetes.

This result is limited to existing scientific research.

Lifestyle & Other Risk Factors Can Influence The Risk of Developing Type 2 diabetes

Genetics are NOT the only risk factor for Type 2 Diabetes.

Type 2 Diabetes is believed to be caused by a combination of environmental, genetic and lifestyle factors. Now that you have learnt about your genetic risk, you can determine how aggressively you need to make lifestyle changes to reduce your risk.

The earlier in your life that you commit to living a healthy lifestyle, the more you can reduce your risk for or delay the development of Type 2 Diabetes.

Weight
Weight

You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are are overweight or obese.

Age
Age

The risk of type 2 diabetes increases as you get older, especially after age 45.

Family
Family History

Individuals with more than one relative with diabetes or with younger maternal diagnosis had even higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

Blood pressure
Cholesterol Levels

Risk of developing type 2 diabetes increases in individuals who have a low level of HDL (good) cholesterol, or a high level of triglycerides.

Pregnant
History of Gestational Diabetes

Have a history of gestational diabetes or gave birth to a baby weighing 4kg or more, is one of the risk factors for type 2 diabetes.

Suggested Lifestyle Changes

Lifestyle Recommendations

1

Do not smoke as smoking is associated with insulin resistance, inflammation and dyslipidemia (high level of cholesterol and fats in the bloodstream). Studies shown that smoking increases the risk of the developing of diabetes.

Exercise Recommendations

1

Aim to have at least 150 min/week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity (50-70% of maximum heart rate), spread over at least 3 days/week, with no more than 2 consecutive days without exercise. Moderate-intensity aerobic are activities that will increase your heart rate. Example of these activities are: 2.5 miles of brisk walking, aerobic dancing , jogging.

2

In the absence of contraindications, adults with type 2 diabetes should be encouraged to perform resistance training at least twice per week. Resistance training improves muscle strength and includes training using weights such as weight machines, and free weights.

Dietary Recommendations

1

Aim to have an enriching diet with higher cereal fiber and low in calories, for example whole grains, fruits and vegetables.

2

Consume carbohydrates with a low or medium Glycemic Index (GI). Carbohydrate can raise blood sugar. Glycemic index (GI), indicates how quickly the carbohydrate present in the food can raise blood sugar levels. Food with high GI causes your blood sugar levels to spike up much faster, as compared to food with medium or low GI. The body will breakdown low GI food slowly, resulting in a slower increase in the glucose level in the blood. Low GI food falls in between the ranks of 0 to 55. Moderate GI food range from 56 to 69 and anything higher than 69 is considered food with high GI. Typically low and moderate GI food are dried beans, kidney beans, barley , quinoa, fruits, greens, non-starchy vegetables, brown rice, pita bread.

3

Cut down processed foods which are high in sodium (canned food, fast food, fried food), added sugar ( baked good, sweetened beverages) and saturated fats (red meat, butter, cheese). Stick with whole, fresh and minimally processed foods.

4

Frequent, small meals can help to slow down the absorption of food, decrease blood sugar levels after meals and reduced insulin requirement during the course of the day.

5

Reduce consumption of calorie-rich foods as they increase the risk of developing insulin resistance (IR) and subsequently diabetes.

What Is Type 2 Diabetes
and How Can It Affect You

What is Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is characterized by high blood sugar (hyperglycemia), insulin resistance, and relative insulin deficiency. In type 2 DM, it becomes increasingly difficult for the body's cells to absorb and use the insulin effectively.

The severity of diabetes can vary quite a bit: Some people only need to make minor changes to their lifestyle such as maintain healthy weight and perform more exercise to manage their diabetes. However, some people who have type 2 diabetes would require long-term treatment that involves taking tablets or insulin. This type of DM is primarily due to the interaction between genetics and lifestyle factors.

How It Can Affect You?

Hormone insulin (produced by the pancreas) regulates the movement of sugar into the body's cells to be used as energy. After you eat, your blood sugar level rises, and insulin is released to keep the blood sugar level within the normal range.

However, insulin resistance or Type 2 DM happens when the pancreases produces enough insulin, however the body does not respond to insulin. At first to compensate this, the pancreas continues making more insulin pushing the cells to take up glucose and maintaining a normal blood sugar level.

Unfortunately, at later stages as the condition of the insulin resistance gets worse, the pancreas may no longer produce enough insulin. This causes the blood sugar levels to rise, and eventually leading to Type-2 DM.

The excess blood sugar in diabetes patients can cause health complications. It can severely damage the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and other body parts and doubles the risk of heart attack and stroke.

Do You Have Symptoms Of Type 2 Diabetes?

Symptoms of type 2 diabetes include:

If you have a family history of this condition or think you have the symptoms, consult with a healthcare professional.

Understanding Your Results

How Is Your Genetic Risk Calculated?

Your genetic risk assessment is

13.85

Genes tested

This result is calculated based on the following SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) that are associated with Type 2 Diabetes.

GenesYour GenotypeWhat It Means
IL6GGIncreased risk
SLC30A8TTTypical
PPARG_exon4CCIncreased risk
CDKN2A/2B_upstreamTTIncreased risk
IGF2BP2_intron2.1GGTypical
IGF2BP2_intron2.2AATypical
CDKAL1_intron5.4AATypical
TCF7L2_intron3.2CCTypical
TCF7L2_intron4GGTypical
HHEX_intergenic2AATypical
HHEX_intergenic1CTIncreased risk
TCF7L2_intron3.1AATypical
CDKAL1_intron5.3GGTypical
CDKAL1_intron5.1AATypical
CDKAL1_intron5.2AATypical
Intergenic ACIncreased risk
FTO_intron1.4ACIncreased risk
PPARG_intronCCIncreased risk
KCNJ11CCTypical

Limitations

This report does not diagnose any health conditions or provide medical advice. This should not be used as a diagnostic tool.

This result is limited to existing scientific research.

Consult with a healthcare professional before making any major lifestyle changes or if you have any other concerns about your results.