Health Risks Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Based on your genetics, your genetic predisposition for Age-Related Macular Degeneration is


What does this mean?

 Your genotypes indicate that you have an increased risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

How Is Your Genetic Risk Calculated?

Your genetic risk assessment is


This result is based on the SNPs(single nucleotide polymorphism)that are associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

Your Genotype
What it means?
Genes: FRK/COL10A1
Your Genotype: CC
What it means? Typical
Genes: TLR3
Your Genotype: CC
What it means? Typical
Genes: CFH_exon9
Your Genotype: TT
What it means? Typical
Genes: ARMS2/HTRA1
Your Genotype: TT
What it means? Greatly increased risk
Genes: CFH_exon2
Your Genotype: GG
What it means? Increased risk
Genes: VEGFA
Your Genotype: TT
What it means? Increased risk for late-stage AMD


This report does not diagnose any health conditions or provide medical advice. This should not be used as a diagnostic tool.
This result is limited to existing scientific research.
Please consult with a healthcare professional before making any major lifestyle changes or if you have any other concerns about your results.

What is Age-Related Macular Degeneration?

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) arises when macula which is a spot near the center of the retina in the eyes becomes damaged. Macula is important for central vision which allows us to see object straight ahead. The center field view (central vision) will be disrupted and can appear blurry, distorted or even dark in those with AMD. People with AMD also lose their ability to see fine details regardless if the object is near or far.

AMD is a disease of the retina which accounts for 8.7% of blindness worldwide and is the leading cause of visual impairment in developed countries particularly in people older than 60 years. Its prevalence is likely to increase as a consequence of exponential population ageing.

How It Affects Your Body

AMD causes damage to the macula, the part of the eye needed for sharp, central vision, which lets us see objects that are straight ahead. This is necessary for recognizing faces, reading books, or using mobile phone screens, watching television, sewing, preparing food, driving, safely navigating stairs, and performing other daily tasks we take for granted.


Risk Factors Can Influence The Risk of Developing Age-related macular degeneration

Genetics are NOT the only risk factor for Age-Related Macular Degeneration.
Age-Related Macular Degeneration is believed to be caused by a combination of environmental, genetic and lifestyle factors. Now that you have learnt about your genetic risk, you can determine how aggressively you need to make lifestyle changes to reduce your risk.
The earlier in your life that you commit to living a healthy lifestyle, the more you can reduce your risk for or delay the development of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.


People of European descent are more likely to develop AMD than people of African, Hispanic, and Asian descent.


The risk of developing AMD increases greatly as a person ages. This condition is rarely diagnosed in people under the age of 50. Over the age of 80, 2-14% of people have AMD, depending on ethnicity.


Studies have shown a diet high in refined sugars, high-fat dairy, red and processed meats drastically increase AMD risk. High omega-6 fatty acid intake has also been shown to contribute to AMD due to its pro-inflammatory properties. These diets induce high oxidative stresses which damage the blood vessels and retina in the eyes.

Family History

Parents, siblings, and children of an individual with AMD have a higher chance of developing AMD themselves.


Smoking is associated with a higher risk of developing AMD. This is because smoking damages the blood vessels as well as drastically increase oxidative stress to the cells. The eyes require a healthy supply of blood and oxygen which will be impaired with smoking.

Suggested Lifestyle Changes

Dietary Recommendations:

  1. Higher dietary intakes of carotenoids such as lutein or zeaxanthin which are found in abundance in dark green, leafy vegetables, and citruses have a potential effect in reducing the risk of AMD.
  2. Reduce high total fat intake as it was found to be associated with a higher risk of progression of AMD.
  3. Increase consumption of omega-3 fats, which are found in fish and some nuts. This can help to reduce the risk of progression to advanced AMD due to its potent anti-inflammatory properties.

Lifestyle Recommendations:

  1. Avoid smoking as cigarette smoking increases the risk of AMD.
  2. Maintain a healthy weight and BMI (body mass index). Overweight and obese individuals have a higher risk of vascular damage.
  3. Maintain a healthy blood pressure level of 120or80 to 130-85mmHG to avoid the progression of AMD.

Exercise Recommendations:

  1. Start with 20-30 minutes of aerobic activity such as HIIT and swimming at least 3-5 times a week. Aerobic exercise helps improve body composition and utilize excess fats.
  2. Incorporate resistance training such as weight lifting and plyometrics at least 3-4 times a week. High-intensity exercise has been proven to be more effective at reducing triglyceride levels than moderate-intensity workouts.

Result Explanation Recommendations:

  1. Regular exercise routine can help increase adiponectin levels in the body to reduce risk of obesity and heart-related disease.
  2. Exercising at least 150 minutes per week of moderate aerobic activities (eg. brisk walking, gardening, ballroom dancing, jogging, etc) or 75 minutes of vigorous aerobic exercises (eg. sprinting, swimming, cycling, hiking, etc) every week.
  3. Getting yourself involved in sports interest groups or working out with friends can keep you accountable for exercising regularly.
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