Health Risks Familial Hypercholesterolaemia

Based on your genetics, your genetic predisposition for Familial Hypercholesterolaemia is


What does this mean?

Likely to have typical risk of Familial Hypercholesterolaemia Your genotypes are associated with a typical risk for familial hypercholesterolemia. See recommendations below on ways to maintain your health.

How Is Your Genetic Risk Calculated?

This result is based on the SNPs(single nucleotide polymorphism)that are associated with Familial Hypercholesterolaemia.

Your Genotype
What it means?
Genes: LDLR.4
Your Genotype: TT
What it means? Typical
Genes: LDLR.3
Your Genotype: CC
What it means? Typical
Genes: LDLR_exon2
Your Genotype: CC
What it means? Typical
Genes: APOB_exon26
Your Genotype: GG
What it means? Typical
Genes: LDLR_exon9
Your Genotype: GG
What it means? Typical
Genes: LDLR_exon12
Your Genotype: GG
What it means? Typical
Genes: LDLR.2
Your Genotype: GG
What it means? Typical
Genes: LDLR.1
Your Genotype: CC
What it means? Typical


This report does not diagnose any health conditions or provide medical advice. This should not be used as a diagnostic tool.
This result is limited to existing scientific research.
Please consult with a healthcare professional before making any major lifestyle changes or if you have any other concerns about your results.

What is Familial Hypercholesterolaemia?

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a defect that is passed down through families. It causes raised levels of “bad” cholesterol called LDL (low density lipoprotein). High levels of LDL in the body can contribute to heart related complications.

Since it is an inherited condition (from birth), it can cause heart attack at early stages. Normally, cholesterol levels tend to increase with age. However, people with FH have high levels of LDL even from a very young age, and it continues to go higher as they age.

FH causes a defect where the body is unable to remove the LDL from the bloodstream efficiently. When there is too much cholesterol in the blood, it can cause buildup of plaque (deposits) in the artery (blood vessels connecting to the heart). These plaques can harden over time and cause the blood vessels to become narrow, limiting the supply of oxygen-rich blood to other organs in the body. This can lead to heart attack.

How can familial hypercholesterolemia affect you?

Familial Hypercholesterolemia causes:

How It Affects Your Body

Individuals with FH have compromised cholesterol metabolism. This causes high levels of LDL levels in the blood compared to other individuals with the same lifestyle. FH leads to an earlier and increased onset of high cholesterol-related complications. Individuals will have a high risk of atherosclerosis (narrowing/ blocked blood vessels due to plaque), cardiovascular diseases, and more at a much younger age, and at a higher severity.

Do you have symptoms of high cholesterol levels?


Risk Factors Can Influence The Risk of Developing Familial hypercholesterolaemia

Genetics are NOT the only risk factor for Familial Hypercholesterolaemia.
Familial Hypercholesterolaemia is believed to be caused by a combination of environmental, genetic and lifestyle factors. Now that you have learnt about your genetic risk, you can determine how aggressively you need to make lifestyle changes to reduce your risk.
The earlier in your life that you commit to living a healthy lifestyle, the more you can reduce your risk for or delay the development of Familial Hypercholesterolaemia.

Family History

Parents, siblings, and children of an individual with familial hypercholesterolemia have a higher chance of developing hypercholesterolemia themselves.


In general, eating a healthy diet, maintaining a healthy weight, engaging in physical activity, and avoiding smoking can reduce the risk of hypercholesterolemia.


Smoking increases the risk of hypercholesterolemia. Exposure to secondhand smoke, including smoke from a burning cigarette and smoke exhaled by smokers, also increases the risk of hypercholesterolemia.


In general, the risk of hypercholesterolemia increases as a person gets older. With age, blood vessels become less flexible, which can impede blood flow to the heart. Also, deposits called plaques can build up over time along blood vessels and restrict blood flow to the heart.

High Blood Pressure

Chronic high blood pressure increases the risk of heart disease. High blood pressure puts excess strain and increased workload on the heart and blood vessels, which can damage them over time.

Suggested Lifestyle Changes

Dietary Recommendations:

  1. Increase intake of vegetables, fruit, non-fat dairy, beans, tree nuts, fish, and lean meats.
  2. Reduce consumption of saturated fat (fatty beef, lamb, cheese, butter). Instead, consume food rich in healthy fats such as olive oils, nuts, and oily fish.
  3. Consume shellfish and eggs in moderations. They are low in saturated fats but still contain cholesterols.
  4. Avoid trans fats (i.e. processed food, and margarine).
  5. Consider adding plant stanols, which are naturally occurring plant chemicals that block cholesterol absorption in the digestive system, therefore lowering the levels of LDL (bad) cholesterol in the blood. Plant stanols can be found in wheat germ, wheat bran, peanuts, vegetable oils (olive oil), almonds, and Brussels sprouts. Certain dairy products have added plant stanols in it which include fortified milk, spreads, yogurts, and yogurt drinks.

Lifestyle Recommendations:

  1. Stop smoking to avoid depletion of good cholesterol (HDL).
  2. Avoid or reduce alcohol consumption. Alcohol can further increase LDL levels. Maintain a healthy weight. Obese and overweight individuals drastically increase LDL levels.
  3. Increase sleep quality and quantity to aid LDL management.

Exercise Recommendations:

  1. Incorporate at least 30-60 minutes of aerobic exercise at least 5 times a week. Some exercises include walking, cycling, and swimming.
  2. Incorporate resistance training at least 4 times a week to increase HDL levels and reduce LDL levels.

Result Explanation Recommendations:

  1. Stop smoking to reduce the risk of coronary artery disease. Smoking causes excessive oxidative and tissue damage to the vascular system. This can dramatically accelerate plaque buildup and CAD.
  2. Avoid excessive alcohol consumption to reduce the risk of CAD progression. Avoid exceeding more than 2 servings of alcoholic beverages per day. However, studies have shown light alcohol consumption to be beneficial in stimulating a healthy heart function. A serving of wine a day is high in resveratrol, a potent antioxidant that can preserve healthy heart function.
  3. Aim to do more physical activities to increase cardiovascular and respiratory performance as well as improve body composition.
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