Health Risks Nicotine Dependence

Based on your genetics, your genetic predisposition for Nicotine Dependence is


What does this mean?

 Your genotypes indicate that you have a typical risk for migraine. Maintain a healthy lifestyle to prevent migraine.

How Is Your Genetic Risk Calculated?

Your genetic risk assessment is


This result is based on the SNPs(single nucleotide polymorphism)that are associated with Nicotine Dependence.

Your Genotype
What it means?
Genes: CHRNA5
Your Genotype: GG
What it means? Typical
Genes: CHRNA4
Your Genotype: CC
What it means? Increased risk


This report does not diagnose any health conditions or provide medical advice. This should not be used as a diagnostic tool.
This result is limited to existing scientific research.
Please consult with a healthcare professional before making any major lifestyle changes or if you have any other concerns about your results.

What is Nicotine Dependence?

Nicotine dependence is a health condition characterized by the addiction to nicotine, which is a type of psychoactive substance use disorder. People who have an addiction to nicotine are unable to stop using nicotine even though they know that it harms their health status or have a strong desire to quit. The prevalence of nicotine dependence in the general population is about 13%, constituting nearly half of current nicotine users. Since the vast majority of smokers smoke for most of their life, alternating periods of remission and relapse, nicotine dependence is currently widely recognised as a chronic and relapsing disease. Although 75-85% of smokers would like to stop, several attempts are usually needed before quitting definitively and less than 50% of smokers succeed in stopping permanently before the age of 60.

How It Affects Your Body

The main effect of nicotine use is the temporary feeling of pleasure, which is produced by the alteration of mood and physical effects in the brain. As a result, people get addicted to nicotine.

However, stopping tobacco causes withdrawal symptoms, including irritability and anxiety. Nicotine dependence can also lead to a series of health complications, such as emphysema, lung cancer, infertility, heart diseases, etc.

Signs and Symptoms

Risk Factors Can Influence The Risk of Developing Nicotine dependence

Genetics are NOT the only risk factor for Nicotine Dependence.
Nicotine Dependence is believed to be caused by a combination of environmental, genetic and lifestyle factors. Now that you have learnt about your genetic risk, you can determine how aggressively you need to make lifestyle changes to reduce your risk.
The earlier in your life that you commit to living a healthy lifestyle, the more you can reduce your risk for or delay the development of Nicotine Dependence.

Suggested Lifestyle Changes

Dietary Recommendations:

  1. Food deprivation can increase the urge of smoking. Therefore, be sure to follow a regular meal schedule with sufficient meal portions to suppress the urge to smoke.
  2. Drink ginseng tea as it can help to reduce the desire to smoke.
  3. When the desire to smoke arises, drink milk as it will reportedly worsen cigarette taste by making it bitter.
  4. Sugar-free chewing gum and mint can help reduce cravings.
  5. Reduce consumption of caffeine, meat, sugar and spicy foods as they can enhance the taste of smoke.
  6. Caffeine can be a strong trigger for smoking as it enhances the cravings.
  7. Increase consumption of vegetables and fruits. Smoking reduces the absorption of vitamin C and calcium, therefore, you are advised to consume more citrus fruits.

Lifestyle Recommendations:

  1. Avoid smoking any form of substances that contain nicotine. For example, vape, e-cigarettes, traditional tobacco cigarettes, juul, etc.
  2. Seek for mental support from family, friends, counselors and support groups to help you cope with nicotine dependence.
  3. Avoid meeting people who will encourage smoking.
  4. Establish good stress coping mechanisms with good sleep hygiene, a healthy diet, exercising regularly where good habits help to avoid alcohol, nicotine dependence, and compulsive behaviours.

Exercise Recommendations:

  1. Follow a regular weekly exercise routine with at least 150 minutes of moderate intensity exercises (e.g. brisk walking, dancing, gardening) or 75 minutes of vigorous intensity exercises (e.g. running, swimming, cycling).
  2. Get a companion and an accountability partner to encourage each other for regular exercising.

Result Explanation Recommendations:

  1. Aerobic exercises can reduce the possibility of getting migraines. For example: cycling, swimming, brisk walking, etc.
  2. Attempt relaxing exercises (e.g. deep breathing methods and meditation) can help reduce stress, which can also help to cope with stress-related migraine.
  3. Stretching exercises on the shoulder and neck can relieve tension and muscle tightness.
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